Bordeaux Braces for its First Hybrid Vintage | Wine-Searcher News & Features (2023)

This summer will see the biggest change to Bordeaux's wine landscape since phylloxera, with hybrid grapes getting the green light.

Bordeaux Braces for its First Hybrid Vintage | Wine-Searcher News & Features (1)

Champagne has already done it. And now, this summer, Bordeaux, and Bordeaux Supérieur appellations are expected to receive authorization to plant and make wines from new disease resistant hybrid grapes.

They will include white varietiesSauvignac, Souvignier Gris and Floréal, but also the red hybrid Vidoc Noir, the Bordeaux wine council, the CIVB, said. The Médoc and Haut-Médoc appellations have chosen the same resistant grape varieties but also added Voltis, a white hybrid variety authorized in Champagne production, the CIVB told Wine-Searcher.

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Could this be the timid start to a viticultural revolution which ends wine typicity in Bordeaux?

Faced with pressure to reduce the spraying of synthetic chemicals and the cost of organic production, together with the impact of changing climate on vineyards – as the high alcohol and low acidity levels of the Bordeaux 2022 vintage, tasted en Primeur attested – Bordeaux is taking climate adaption measures as it grapples with the onslaught of social and changing consumer demand, which have piled on commercial pressure on producers. With new generation hybrid wines popping up in supermarkets in London, NY and Frankfurt, and the Scandinavian wine monopolies turning to them for their green credentials, consumers, who may never have heard of them are now increasingly likely to taste them.

Moves in Bordeaux to incorporate hybrid grapes come as France's Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualité (INAO), the country's agriculture governing body, said hybrid vines plantings in France had last year jumped by 46.7 percent or 552 ha to 1732 ha, between August 2021 and August 2022. During that period plantings of Floréal, one of the new French hybrids, almost doubled from 250ha to 452ha. Souvignier Gris remains the most planted hybrid grape (495ha).

Limited impact?

France's AOC (PDO) appellation bodies, Bordeaux, Bordeaux Superieur, Médoc and Haut-Médoc, have requested hybrid plant authorizations from the INAO, through France's VIFA (Variétés d'intérêt à fin d'adaptation) program for developing grape varieties suited to climate change adaptation, which stipulates that hybrid grapes can only account for a maximum of 5 percent of a producer's planted vineyard area. Hybrid grapes can make up a maximum 10 percent of finished blends.

Although disease-resistant grapes are increasingly being authorized and planted in France, their use is severely restricted in AOC (PDO) appellations. They of course can be registered in the more flexible Vin de France classification.

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In Germany and Italy, regional committees have to authorise the planting of hybrid grapes; once authorized, producers can plant as many disease-resistant vines as they wish according to hybrids association, Piwi International.

Jacques Gautier, the INAO's head of environmental affairs, disagrees that the VIFA programme is too restrictive. "The rules are not too strict; they allow for a significant development of the VIFA. Its more about the supply side issue of these new varieties," he told Wine-Searcher. Bordeaux, Bordeaux Superieur and Champagne have had their official requests (for the inclusion of resistant grapes) authorized by the INAO’s national committee, the INAO said.

"Champagne has already modified its Cahier de Charges [appellation specification] to permit new resistant grapes in the appellation, for Bordeaux, the period during which those opposing the INAO's vote has just ended," Gautier said.

The CIVB, meanwhile, told Wine-Searcher that it expected the INAO's final approval of a lengthy validation process to conclude this summer, allowing the Bordeaux and Medoc appellations to modify their Cahiers des Charges specifications on permitted grape varieties.

The INAO said French AOC Appellations Côtes de Provence and Cognac had also started the process.

The new generation hybrid wines

A sea of red grafted vines extends across the vast, humid greenhouses of Mercier, one of the world's biggest vine nurseries.

Located in the heart of France's Vendée region, north of Bordeaux, row upon row of potted vine plants is increasingly made up of a diverse number of contemporary disease-resistant hybrid grape varieties (crossings of Vitis vinifera vines with American or Asian wild vines), known in Germany as Pioneer Wines (Piwis) and in France as ResDur (Résistances Durables – a programme launched in 2000; it is only recently, due to lengthy validation process, that new "French" grapes that have emerged).

Disease-resistant hybrids may account for a small share of Mercier's 12 million vine plant sales a year, yet demand and production are growing, with planting progressing from the south of France to Bordeaux and north to Brittany and Normandy. Increasing demand means that supply cannot always be met.

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Since 2020, Mercier has been the exclusive distributor of Sauvignac, a hybrid created by Swiss geneticist, breeder and producer, Valentin Blattner; it is gradually increasing its supply capacity. With Germany, Switzerland, France (both at national and regional level) and Italy all increasing production and breeding of hybrids, the race is now on the further develop hybrids designed according to specific climates in Europe – despite the bureaucratic obstacles and rules.

To this end, Mercier has a secured a co-development agreement with Blattner (who designs hybrids according to regional climates) to develop new hybrids. The company says 22 new hybrid varieties have been selected for further research.

A vertical tastings of hybrid wines from the 2018, 2019 and 2020 vintages, at producer Ducourt, a 480-hectare estate spread across six Bordeaux appellations, revealed the aging capacity of Sauvignac.

Ducourt, a pioneer in hybrid production in Bordeaux, first planted disease-resistant grapes in 2014. It now has 14.7 hectares of them planted in several Bordeaux appellations and is ramping up production with 100,000 bottles made each year. The wines have been classified as Vin de France, as they are not yet permitted in Bordeaux AOC appellations.

Ducourt's Metissage Blanc wines (stainless steel production) show how grapes like Sauvignac can be made with relatively low alcohol and higher than current average Bordeaux acidity levels. It's a bright, aromatic wine, showing bright tropical fruit including pineapple. Granted, for some, the youngest Metissage Blanc maybe a one-dimensional wine with no aromatic complexity, yet the fleshy 2018 and 2019 show this grape variety can gain layers and texture, with bottle aging.

The wine was fermented in stainless steel. Being able to taste new grape varieties such as Sauvignac made using different methods, as already done at the DLR Institute in Neustadt, in Germany, would further show how and where they can be produced effectively. Whilst canopy management and fermentation temperature can shape the style of Sauvignac, yeasts play a key role in showing the versatility of the grape variety. Blattner says Sauvignac is either closer to Riesling or Sauvignon Blanc, according to the yeast selected for fermentation.

Since creating Sauvignac, Blattner says he's improved its resistance; while some hybrids have one resistant gene against one fungus, Sauvignac has two resistant genes against mildew strengthening its resistance. Those hybrids made with one resistant gene have a weakness: fungi can mutate and get round a single resistant gene.

Bordeaux Braces for its First Hybrid Vintage | Wine-Searcher News & Features (2)
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"Next generation of resistant grapes will have three resistant genes against downy and powdery mildew," says Volker Freytag, owner of the Freytag vine nursery in Germany.

Tasting a Souvignier Gris (fermented in stainless steel) at Mercier reveals the structural quality of the grape variety; long, aromatic, and fleshy. Despite its growth in plantings, Floréal meanwhile showed less structural and aromatic complexity and length than the Souvignier Gris tasted at Mercier. (Disclosure: At Mercier, I was able to taste one sample of each of following grape varieties: Sauvignac, Floréal and Souvignier Gris).

New blends, new solutions

In Bordeaux, producers of Cru Classé wines – which account for about 5 percent of Bordeaux's wines production volumes – have not generally shown any appetite (at least publicly) or interest in planting disease resistant grapes. However, a spokesperson at Château de Fieuzal told wine-searcher that it was interested in hybrid grapes but lamented that the appellation rules of Pessac-Léogan did not permit the planting of hybrid grapes.

Producers in established wine regions can be reluctant to make changes that could threaten their identity.

Meanwhile the maverick Château Cazebonne producer, Jean-Baptiste Duquesne, author of Bordeaux, Une Histoire de Cépages (Bordeaux, a story of grapes) recognizes that hybrid grapes are the "future", even if he is not enamored by them. Rather than hybrids, Duquesne remains immersed in recovering and making wine blends from Bordeaux lost native varieties, several of which have shown they can each play a key role when grown in contemporary viticultural climatic conditions.

That said, efforts from Ducourt to make wines made from a blend of hybrids and indigenous grape varieties appear to have paid off. Ducourt's Le Chants des Sirènes, a pale pink blend happens to be made from Souvignier Gris and the Bordeaux indigenous variety Sauvignon Gris, a bright and layered, balanced wine.

"Sauvignon Gris has less acidity, more sweetness, and flavors of aromas of white flowers and citrus fruits. It blends well Souvignier Gris, which provides the wine with higher acidity levels and tropical fruit flavors," says Jonathan Ducourt, one of the estate's directors. Ducourt says blends of hybrid grapes and local grapes are a way of enticing distributors and consumers to engage with hybrid grapes; some might be put off by single-variety grapes. Crossing resistant varieties with indigenous grape varieties can be way of preserving typicity. Blattner has for instance, had success crossing native Cava grapes of Catalonia with a resistant variety, without changing the profile of the finished wine.

Ducourt is currently working on a new white blend called Le Chant des Sirènes Sauvignon & Co, a blend of Sauvignon Blanc with hybrids grapes Sauvignac and Muscaris.

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Meanwhile, Le Chant des Sirènes Duo de Cabernet, will be made from Cabernet Sauvignon and the Cabernet Jura next year. The Cabernet Sauvignon will bring tannic structure and more complexity, but the Cabernet Jura has considerably lower alcohol and higher acidity levels. "In 2018, Cabernet Jura alcohol level was 13 percent, but our Saint-Émilion Bordeaux blend was 15 percent," Ducourt explains. "The blend of our Saint-Émilion 2022 is not yet done but we have tanks from 14 to 15.2 percent alcohol. Final blend most likely between 14.5-14.8 percent."

Red with a white wine profile

Metissage Rouge 2020 is red wine but as Ducourt points out, you would not be able to guess its geographical origin from tasting it. It is a red wine, but only in appearance. On the palate this fruit forward, round red with little, if any tannin structure, yet on the nose it has a profile of white wine; there is orange peel, white blossom, and stone fruit. "Bizarre!" jokes Ducourt. Bizarre, indeed. But in an intriguing way; tasting three vintages of the same wine shows how Cabernet Jura, a hybrid also created by Blattner, can age surprisingly well in bottle. The 2019 Metissage rouge has a smoky profile on the nose, with licorice flavors. Ducourt says that it has four times as many anthocyanins than the Bordeaux's classic red grapes.

Contemporary hybrid disease-resistant grapes are resistant to downy and powdery mildew and, in some instances, show greater resistance to black rot than the classic Vitis vinifera grapes.

"With disease-resistant grapes it is possible not to spray at all. We have two rows of varieties Cabernet Jura and Sauvignac which have not sprayed at all since they were planted in 2014. So far, these two rows have resisted well and do not show sign to struggle more than the rest of the vineyard plot," said Jonathan Ducourt.

"The non-spraying was part of the experimental protocol we set up with IFV (French Wine and Vine Institute). The rest of the vineyards are sprayed once or twice a year, again according to IFV recommendations." Ducourt said.

On disease resistant hybrid vines, Ducourt uses organic sprays (copper and sulfur) but sprays to 80 percent less on hybrid vines, compared with classic grape variety vines.

According to the Freytag vine nursery in Germany, which created the Cabernet Blanc hybrid, young consumers are more interested in new hybrids than older drinkers and likewise new cooler-climate viticultural areas like Britain, Scandinavia and Holland are far more open to them than established wine regions such as Bordeaux.

"Hybrid grapes are providing answers to today's environmental, political, and social questions," owner Volker Freytag said. "The wine industry needs this new impetus to take it forward; it can't always tell the same story."

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What are the characteristics of Bordeaux wine? ›

Bordeaux reds are medium- to full-bodied with bold aromas of black currant, plums and an earthiness like smelling wet soil or pencil lead. Depending on the quality, vintage and what region within Bordeaux the wine is from, fruit flavors range from more tart fruit to sweeter ripe fruit.

Is Bordeaux dry or sweet? ›

The red Bordeaux blend is a dry, medium to full-bodied wine high in tannins with medium acidity. Because a Bordeaux blend can be made with several different red wine grapes from different regions in differing proportions, the color, amount of acidity, texture, and exact flavors can vary.

What are the 5 grapes in a Bordeaux? ›

What are the Bordeaux Varietals? The six Bordeaux Varietals include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec, and occasionally Carménère. Bordeaux blends are made up of differing combinations of these grapes, all of which bring unique characteristics to their wines.

Is Bordeaux a good wine? ›

By far the largest, the most important, and one of the best French wine regions, both for high-end wines and for bargains, is Bordeaux.

Why is Bordeaux wine so special? ›

Aging Potential. Of course, one of the key reasons why Bordeaux is so prized around the world is due to its aging potential. All of the red wines of Bordeaux will be aged in traditional barrels before bottling, but thanks to the emphasis on the tannic Cabernet Sauvignon grape, they are perfect for aging in the bottle.

What makes a good Bordeaux vintage? ›

Kolasa adds: 'a great vintage wine is made by terroir and very good weather conditions in that year. If a winemaker tries to compensate for what is missing, it wears off with time and you end up disappointed.

Is Bordeaux a cheap wine? ›

There are about 10,000 wine producers all around the city of Bordeaux and not all of them produce luxurious and expensive wine. The vast majority of Bordeaux wines are affordable.

Is a Bordeaux like a pinot noir? ›

Bordeaux uses Cabernet Sauvignon in a blend with other grape varieties. This grape has a thick skin and gives a lot of color and tannins. In Burgundy, the red grape used is Pinot Noir, which has a thin skin and gives little color and tannins.

Is Bordeaux expensive wine? ›

This region of France is known for producing wines of the highest quality—and often with a price tag to match. The most expensive Bordeaux wines can cost thousands of dollars per bottle.

Should Bordeaux wine be chilled? ›

Fuller-bodied, tannic wines like Bordeaux and Napa Cabernet Sauvignon taste better warmer, so keep them to 45 minutes in the fridge. Red wine that's too cold tastes dull, but when too warm, it's flabby and alcoholic. Like Goldilocks, somewhere in between is just right.

What are the five best Bordeaux? ›

First growth or Premier Cru is the highest classification of Bordeaux wines. There are five First Growth wines, which are exalted as a league above all others in Bordeaux - Chateau Latour, Chateau Lafite Rothschild, Chateau Margaux, Chateau Haut Brion, and Château Mouton Rothschild.

What is special about Bordeaux France? ›

First and foremost, Bordeaux is known for its wine.

The region is the undisputed wine capital of the world and Bordeaux wines are often amongst the most expensive in the world thanks to the famous terroir. That said, in Bordeaux's bars and restaurants you can find great wines for as little as 3 euros a glass.

How do you drink Bordeaux wine? ›

Serve Red Bordeaux slightly below room temperature (around 65 °F / 18 °C). Decant red Bordeaux for at least 30 minutes. Store all your red wines below 65 °F / 18 °C. Expect to spend around $25–$30 for a great bottle of Red Bordeaux.

What does Bordeaux stand for? ›

Although a simplistic view would be that Bordeaux means "the side of the water". - Bord means river bank, sea shore. - Eaux means water. - Bordeaux is close to the Atlantic Ocean, in an estuary.

What are 2 facts about Bordeaux? ›

Bordeaux is classified as a “City of Art and History”. It has 362 historic monuments, with some dating back to Roman times. After Paris, Bordeaux is the city with the most listed monuments in France.

What year was the best Bordeaux wine? ›

Without any doubt among the best vintages of Bordeaux red wines we can find at the top the legendary vintages of 1990, 2005 and 2009, 1945 and 1961. Other sensational vintages of Bordeaux follow such as 1985, 1986, 1989, 1996, 1998, 2000.

What drink is Bordeaux famous for? ›

September is Bordeaux wine month and we are focusing our attention on the Rosé and white wines of the region. While Bordeaux may be world famous for its red wine there are plenty of incredible whites and even Rosés, many at very affordable prices. This blog gives you 5 reasons to drink Rosé and white Bordeaux.

Does Bordeaux get better with age? ›

Bordeaux are known for their age-ability. A good Bordeaux from a good year can age for decades because the tannins in the wine act as a natural preservative. Over time, the tannins loose a lot of the “fight” in them as the remain in an anaerobic environment, and mellow.

What to eat with vintage Bordeaux? ›

Good general accompaniments for red bordeaux are rich potato purées (mash) and gratin dauphinoise, mushrooms and truffles and green beans with garlic.

What was the best vintage of Bordeaux in the 80s? ›

The best Bordeaux vintages of the 1980s

The 1985 and 1986 produced some very good wines but the decade's other gems came at the end. In what eventually culminated in the exceptional 1990 vintage, the 1988 and 1989 saw the 80s draw to a very triumphant close in Bordeaux.

Is Bordeaux like Cabernet Sauvignon? ›

A Bordeaux can be a Cabernet Sauvignon but a Cabernet is often not a Bordeaux. Welcome to the complex world of wine names. One of the most common mistakes wine consumers make when order or purchasing wine is not understanding the difference between these two types of popular wines.

How much is a good Bordeaux wine? ›

Now, it's time to get shopping. Our expert tasters picked these great examples of excellent quality Bordeaux wines from the current 2019 vintage, ranging in price from $15 to $200.

What is the most expensive wine in Bordeaux? ›

According to a survey by, the most expensive Bordeaux wines in the world are currently Petrus (Pomerol) for an average of 4,077 US dollars, Le Pin (Pomerol) for 3,966 US dollars and Liber Pater, (Graves) for 3,866 US dollars.

What is the California equivalent to a Bordeaux wine? ›

But beyond the basics, comparisons are a little hard to make between your typical Napa Cab or 'Meritage' and Bordeaux. In the same way, Bordeaux and California Cabernet (read that to include also other Bordeaux varietal wines like Merlot, Cab Franc, and such blends) are both red wines with the same group of varietals.

What wine is closest to Bordeaux? ›

Wine regions closest to Bordeaux are Pessac-Leognan, Haut-Medoc, and Margaux.

Which wines are better Burgundy or Bordeaux? ›

Burgundy tends to be a bit more well-rounded, producing both reds and whites in equal quality, while Bordeaux is famous for the reds, particularly Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.

How long does Bordeaux last once opened? ›

A high tannin red wine like Bordeaux blend, Petite Sirah, or Nebbiolo, can last up to 6 days after opening. Impressive, right? But then there's fortified wines like Port and Sherry. The high tannin and high alcohol content in these wines contributes to their very long shelf life after opening.

How long does an open bottle of Bordeaux last? ›

Light whites (sauvignon blanc and pinot gris) and full-bodied reds (cabernet sauvignon, Bordeaux, merlot) may last up to five days after opening. 4. Old wine is still safe to drink.

How soon should you drink a Bordeaux? ›

THE GRANDS CRUS. - Bordeaux wines: for the Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur the drinking potential is between 1 and 3 years, but there are some examples than can age a little longer.

What are the 5 noble wines of Bordeaux? ›

When speaking to Bordeaux or Bordeaux-style wines, the Noble Grapes are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, and Petit Verdot. These 5 grapes make the world's most coveted red blend wine the world over; Red Bordeaux.

Why are Bordeaux wines so expensive? ›

All in all, Bordeaux wine is usually seen as expensive du its prestige and exclusivity (the most prestigious vineyards are very small). The perfect match between its terroir and its two main grape varieties AND the winemaking process adds to the quality of the Bordeaux wines, and hence, the prestige.

How does Bordeaux rank their wines? ›

Wines from Bordeaux can fall under five distinct classifications: 1) the Médoc Classification of 1855, 2) the Cru Classé of St. Émilion, 3) the Graves Classification, 4) Cru Bourgeois du Médoc, and 5) Crus Artisans. You may also see the term Grand Vin, which, while unregulated, indicates the producer's top wine.

Which Aldi Bordeaux is best? ›

IT'S OFFICIAL: ALDI'S MÉDOC BORDEAUX CROWNED BEST VALUE RED WINE FOR CHRISTMAS. Budget supermarket, Aldi, is set to be the go-to destination for outstanding wines at irresistibly low prices this Christmas, as its deliciously refined Médoc Bordeaux (£7.99, 75cl) lands a highly coveted Which? Best Buy award.

What are the 3 varietals most commonly found in a red Bordeaux blend? ›

The grapes…

Red Bordeaux is mainly composed of Merlot (66%), Cabernet Sauvignon (22%), and Cabernet Franc (9%).

What are the grades of Bordeaux? ›

  • The 1855 classification.
  • The Graves classification.
  • The Saint-Émilion classification.
  • The Crus Bourgeois du Médoc classification.
  • The Crus Artisans classification.

How is Bordeaux wine different? ›

The wines of Bordeaux and Burgundy are quite different. Generally, red Bordeauxs will be bigger, heavier and more tannic or drying than wines from Burgundy. I'd expect purple fruit, tobacco and anise flavors in Bordeaux, while Burgundies should show off red fruit flavors, spice and fresh earth notes.

What makes a Bordeaux wine a Bordeaux? ›

Simply put, Bordeaux wine is wine produced in Bordeaux, France. Bordeaux red wines are a blend of classically French grape varieties, which include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, and Petit Verdot. Carménère was once added to the mix, but it's rarely used these days.

What is the difference between Bordeaux wine and Cabernet Sauvignon? ›

Generally speaking, Bordeaux wines are balanced and nuanced, with less of a fruit-forward flavour to them. They also typically possess a stronger minerality. In contrast, California Cabernets are dense, rich, oaky and higher in alcohol content than Bordeaux wines.

What is considered the best Bordeaux? ›

St-Emilion wines, considered the most robust of the Bordeaux vintages, are richly coloured and reach their maturity more quickly than other red Bordeaux wines.

What are Bordeaux style blends? ›

The phrase “Bordeaux-style red blend” may be used informally to describe red wines produced from a combination of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and to a lesser extent Carmenère and Malbec.

What is a typical Bordeaux blend? ›

A Bordeaux red blend usually combines two or more of the classic Bordeaux varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Carmenère and Malbec. A white blend would most likely include at least two from Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Gris and Muscadelle.

What is the most famous thing is Bordeaux? ›

The Famous Water Mirror

Cross the street from Place de la Bourse towards the riverfront to get to one of Bordeaux's main attractions, Le Miroir d'Eau. The huge water mirror is the most popular monument in Bordeaux attracting many families with kids to splash their feet on hot summer days.

What is the old name for Bordeaux? ›

Bordeaux was originally known as Burdigala by its original Celtic inhabitants around 300 BC and remained peaceful until 60 BC when the Roman Empire invaded.

Why is it called Bordeaux? ›

The name Bordeaux originates from the French “au bord de l'eau” meaning at the water's edge, referring to the two rivers Garonne and Dordogne, which play an important role in the history and the success of the region and its winemaking.

What style of wine is Bordeaux best known for? ›

Over 90% of Bordeaux wines are red wines made with Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. This article will introduce you to Bordeaux wine including tasting notes, food pairing suggestions, and key details to know. The first Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot vines originated in Bordeaux.

What style of wine is Bordeaux known for? ›

Bordeaux has three main styles: Left-Bank blend (Cabernet Sauvignon dominant), Right-Bank blend (Merlot dominant) and White blend (Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc). Despite their acclaim, quality Bordeaux wines can be found at almost every price-point, some as affordable as $15.


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