The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (2023)

Henk Jan van der Woude and Robin Smithuis

Radiology department of the Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam and the Alrijne hospital in Leiderdorp, the Netherlands


In this article we will discuss a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor-like lesions.
The differential diagnosis mostly depends on the review of the conventional radiographs and the age of the patient.

Abbreviations used:

  • ABC = Aneurysmal bone cyst
  • CMF = Chondromyxoid fibroma
  • EG = Eosinophilic Granuloma
  • GCT = Giant cell tumour
  • FD = Fibrous dysplasia
  • HPT = Hyperparathyroidism with Brown tumor
  • NOF = Non Ossifying Fibroma
  • SBC = Simple Bone Cyst

Systematic Approach

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (1)

The most important determinators in the analysis of a potential bone tumor are:

  1. The morphology of the bone lesion on a plain radiograph
    • Well-defined osteolytic
    • ill-defined osteolytic
    • Sclerotic
  2. The age of the patient

It is important to realize that the plain radiograph is the most useful examination for differentiating these lesions.
CT and MRI are only helpful in selected cases.

Here are links to other articles about bone tumors:

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (2)


Most bone tumors are osteolytic.
The most reliable indicator in determining whether these lesions are benign or malignant is the zone of transition between the lesion and the adjacent normal bone (1).
Once we have decided whether a bone lesion is sclerotic or osteolytic and whether it has a well-defined or ill-defined margins, the next question should be: how old is the patient?

Age is the most important clinical clue.

Finally other clues need to be considered, such as a lesion's localization within the skeleton and within the bone, any periosteal reaction, cortical destruction, matrix calcifications, etc.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (3)


Age is the most important clinical clue in differentiating possible bone tumors.
There are many ways of splitting age groups, as can be seen in the table, where the morphology of a bone lesion is combined with the age of the patient.

Some prefer to divide patients into two age groups: 30 years.

Most primary bone tumors are seen in patients In patients > 30 years we must always include metastases and myeloma in the differential diagnosis.

Notice the following:

  • Infections, a common tumor mimicker, are seen in any age group.
  • Infection may be well-defined or ill-defined osteolytic, and even sclerotic.
  • Eosinophilic Granuloma and infections should be mentioned in the differential diagnosis of almost any bone lesion in patients < 20 years.
  • Many sclerotic lesions in patients > 20 years are healed, previously osteolytic lesions which have ossified, such as: NOF, EG, SBC, ABC and chondroblastoma.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (4)

(Video) Imaging of Bone Tumors : Key Concepts | Dr. Venkatesh Manchikanti @ShadesofRadiology

Zone of transition

In order to classify osteolytic lesions as well-defined or ill-defined, we need to look at the zone of transition between the lesion and the adjacent normal bone.
The zone of transition is the most reliable indicator in determining whether an osteolytic lesion is benign or malignant (1).
The zone of transition only applies to osteolytic lesions since sclerotic lesions usually have a narrow transition zone.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (5) Narrow zone of transition: NOF, SBC and ABC

Small zone of transition
A small zone of transition results in a sharp, well-defined border and is a sign of slow growth.
A sclerotic border especially indicates poor biological activity.

In patientsIn patients > 30 years, and particularly > 40 years, despite benign radiographic features, a metastasis or plasmacytoma also have to be considered

On the left three bone lesions with a narrow zone of transition.
Based on the morphology and the age of the patients, these lesions are benign.
Notice that in all three patients, the growth plates have not yet closed.


  1. Non-ossifying fibroma
  2. Solitary bone cyst
  3. Aneurysmal bone cyst

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (6)

Metastases and multiple myeloma
In patients > 40 years metastases and multiple myeloma are the most common bone tumors.
Metastases under the age of 40 are extremely rare, unless a patient is known to have a primary malignancy.
Metastases could be included in the differential diagnosis if a younger patient is known to have a malignancy, such as neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma or retinoblastoma.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (7) Wide zone of transition indicates malignancy or infection or eosinophilic granuloma

Wide zone of transition
An ill-defined border with a broad zone of transition is a sign of aggressive growth (1).
It is a feature of malignant bone tumors.
There are two tumor-like lesions which may mimic a malignancy and have to be included in the differential diagnosis.
These are infections and eosinophilic granuloma.
Both of these entities may have an aggressive growth pattern.


  1. Osteosarcoma
  2. Osteomyelitis
  3. Eosinophilic granuloma

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (8)

Infections and eosinophilic granuloma
Infections and eosinophilic granuloma are exceptional because they are benign lesions which can mimick a malignant bone tumor due to their aggressive biologic behavior.

These lesions may have ill-defined margins, but cortical destruction and an aggressive type of periosteal reaction may also be seen.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (9)

Periosteal reaction

A periosteal reaction is a non-specific reaction and will occur whenever the periosteum is irritated by a malignant tumor, benign tumor, infection or trauma.

(Video) Imaging of Bone Tumors

There are two patterns of periosteal reaction: a benign and an aggressive type.
The benign type is seen in benign lesions such as benign tumors and following trauma.
An aggressive type is seen in malignant tumors, but also in benign lesions with aggressive behavior, such as infections and eosinophilic granuloma.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (10)

Fibrous dysplasia, Enchondroma, NOF and SBC are common bone lesions.
They will not present with a periosteal reaction unless there is a fracture.
If no fracture is present, these bone tumors can be excluded.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (11)

Benign periosteal reaction
Detecting a benign periosteal reaction may be very helpful, since malignant lesions never cause a benign periosteal reaction.
A benign type of periosteal reaction is a thick, wavy and uniform callus formation resulting from chronic irritation.
In the case of benign, slowly growing lesions, the periosteum has time to lay down thick new bone and remodel it into a more normal-appearing cortex.

Benign periosteal reaction in an osteoid osteoma.
Large arrow indicates solid periosteal reaction.
Small arrow indicates nidus.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (12)

Aggressive periosteal reaction
This type of periostitis is multilayered, lamellated or demonstrates bone formation perpendicular to the cortical bone.
It may be spiculated and interrupted - sometimes there is a Codman's triangle.
A Codman's triangle refers to an elevation of the periosteum away from the cortex, forming an angle where the elevated periosteum and bone come together.
In aggressive periostitis the periosteum does not have time to consolidate.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (13) Aggressive periosteal reaction

Aggressive periosteal reaction (2)

  1. Osteosarcoma with interrupted periosteal rection and Codman's triangle proximally (red arrow).
    There is periosteal bone formation perpendicular to the cortical bone and extensive bony matrix formation by the tumor itself.
  2. Ewing sarcoma with lamellated and focally interrupted periosteal reaction. (white arrows)
  3. Infection with a multilayered periosteal reaction.
    Notice that the periostitis is aggressive, but not as aggressive as in the other two cases.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (14) Osteosarcoma (left) and Ewings sarcoma (right)

Cortical destruction

Cortical destruction is a common finding, and not very useful in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions.
Complete destruction may be seen in high-grade malignant lesions, but also in locally aggressive benign lesions like EG and osteomyelitis.
More uniform cortical bone destruction can be found in benign and low-grade malignant lesions.
Endosteal scalloping of the cortical bone can be seen in benign lesions like Fybrous dysplasia and low-grade chondrosarcoma.


  1. Osteosarcoma
    Irregular cortical destruction
  2. Ewing's sarcoma
    Cortical destruction (green arrow) and aggressive periosteal reaction (arrow heads).

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (15) Chondromyxoid fibroma (left), Giant cell tumor (right)

Ballooning is a special type of cortical destruction.
In ballooning the destruction of endosteal cortical bone and the addition of new bone on the outside occur at the same rate, resulting in expansion.

This 'neocortex' can be smooth and uninterrupted, but may also be focally interrupted in more aggressive lesions like GCT.


  1. Chondromyxoid fibroma
    A benign, well-defined, expansile lesion with regular destruction of cortical bone and a peripheral layer of new bone.
  2. Giant cell tumor
    A locally aggressive lesion with cortical destruction, expansion and a thin, interrupted peripheral layer of new bone.
    Notice the wide zone of transition towards the marrow cavity, which is a sign of aggressive behavior (red arrow).

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (16) Ewing's sarcoma with permeative growth through the haversian channels accompanied by a large soft tissue mass

(Video) Bone Lesions: Radiographic Assessment, Part 1, by Geoffrey Riley, MD

Cortical destruction (3)
In the group of malignant small round cell tumors which include Ewing's sarcoma, bone lymphoma and small cell osteosarcoma, the cortex may appear almost normal radiographically, while there is permeative growth throughout the Haversian channels.
These tumors may be accompanied by a large soft tissue mass while there is almost no visible bone destruction.


  1. Ewing's sarcoma
    The radiograph does not shown any signs of cortical destruction.
  2. MRI shows large tumor within the bone and permeative growth through the Haversian channels accompanied by a large soft tissue mass, which is barely visible on the X-ray.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (17)

Location within the skeleton
The location of a bone lesion within the skeleton can be a clue in the differential diagnosis.
The illustration on the left shows the preferred locations of the most common bone tumors.
In some locations, such as in the humerus or around the knee, almost all bone tumors may be found.

Top five location of bone tumors in alphabethic order:

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst -tibia, femur, fibula, spine, humerus
Adamantinoma -tibia shaft, mandible
Chondroblastoma -femur, humerus, tibia, tarsal bone (calc), patella
Chondromyxoid fibroma - tibia, femur, tarsal bone, phalanx foot, fibula
Chondrosarcoma - femur, rib, iliac bone, humerus, tibia
Chordoma -sacrococcygeal, spheno-occipital, cervical, lumbar, thoracic
Eosinophilic Granuloma -femur, skull, iliac bone, rib, vertebra
Enchondroma -phalanges of hands and feet, femur, humerus, metacarpals, rib
Ewing's sarcoma - femur, iliac bone, fibula, rib, tibia
Fibrous dysplasia - femur, tibia, rib, skull, humerus
Giant Cell Tumor - femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, distal radius
Hemangioma - spine, ribs, craniofacial bones, femur, tibia
Lymphoma - femur, tibia, humerus, iliac bone, vertebra
Metastases - vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, femur, humerus
Non Ossifying Fibroma - tibia, femur, fibula, humerus
Osteoid osteoma - femur, tibia, spine, tarsal bone, phalanx
Osteoblastoma - spine, tarsal bone (calc), femur, tibia, humerus
Osteochondroma - femur, humerus, tibia, fibula, pelvis
Osteomyelitis - femur, tibia, humerus, fibula, radius
Osteosarcoma -femur, tibia, humerus, fibula, iliac bone
Solitary Bone Cyst -proximal humerus, proximal femur, calcaneal bone, iliac bone

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (18)

Location: epiphysis - metaphysis - diaphysis

  • Epiphysis
    Only a few lesions are located in the epiphysis, so this could be an important finding.
    In young patients it is likely to be either a chondroblastoma or an infection.
    In patients over 20, a giant cell tumor has to be included in the differential diagnosis.
    In older patients a geode, i.e. degenerative subchondral bone cyst must be added to the differential diagnosis.
    Look carefully for any signs of arthrosis.
  • Metaphysis
    NOF, SBC, CMF, Osteosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, Enchondroma and infections.
  • Diaphysis
    Ewing's sarcoma, SBC, ABC, Enchondroma, Fibrous dysplasia and Osteoblastoma.

Differentiating between a diaphyseal and a metaphyseal location is not always possible.
Many lesions can be located in both or move from the metaphysis to the diaphysis during growth.
Large lesions tend to expand into both areas.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (19)

Location: centric - eccentric - juxtacortical

  • Centric in long bone
    SBC, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, ABC and enchondroma are lesions that are located centrally within long bones.
  • Eccentric in long bone
    Osteosarcoma, NOF, chondroblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, GCT and osteoblastoma are located eccentrically in long bones.
  • Cortical
    Osteoid osteoma is located within the cortex and needs to be differentiated from osteomyelitis.
  • Juxtacortical
    Osteochondroma. The cortex must extend into the stalk of the lesion.
    Parosteal osteosarcoma arises from the periosteum.
  1. SBC: central diaphyseal
  2. NOF: eccentric metaphyseal
  3. SBC: central diaphyseal
  4. Osteoid osteoma: cortical
  5. Degenerative subchondral cyst: epiphyseal
  6. ABC: centric diaphyseal

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (20) Chondroid matrix


Calcifications or mineralization within a bone lesion may be an important clue in the differential diagnosis.
There are two kinds of mineralization:

  • Chondroid matrix in cartilaginous tumors like enchondromas and chondrosarcomsa
  • Osteoid matrix in osseus tumors like osteoid osteomas and osteosarcomas.

Chondroid matrix
Calcifications in chondroid tumors have many descriptions: rings-and-arcs, popcorn, focal stippled or flocculent.


  1. Enchondroma, the most commonly encountered lesion of the phalanges.
  2. Peripheral chondrosarcoma, arising from an osteochondroma (exostosis).
  3. Chondrosarcoma of the rib.

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (21) Osteoid matrix in Osteosarcoma (left) and Osteoid osteoma (right).

Osteoid matrix
Mineralization in osteoid tumors can be described as a trabecular ossification pattern in benign bone-forming lesions and as a cloud-like or ill-defined amorphous pattern in osteosarcomas.
Sclerosis can also be reactive, e.g. in Ewing's sarcoma or lymphoma.

  • left
    Cloud-like bone formation in osteosarcoma.
    Notice the aggressive, interrupted periosteal reaction (arrows).
  • right
    Trabecular ossification pattern in osteoid osteoma.
    Notice osteolytic nidus (arrow).

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (22) LEFT: Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia. RIGHT: Multiple osteolytic lesions in femurshaft

(Video) Approach to Imaging of Bone Tumors and 10 High-Yield MSK Quiz Cases | Spotter Set 31 and 31A

Polyostotic or multiple lesions

Most bone tumors are solitary lesions.
If there are multiple or polyostotic lesions, the differential diagnosis must be adjusted.

Polyostotic lesions
NOF, fibrous dysplasia, multifocal osteomyelitis, enchondromas, osteochondoma, leukemia and metastatic Ewing' s sarcoma.
Multiple enchondromas are seen in Morbus Ollier.
Multiple enchondromas and hemangiomas are seen in Maffucci's syndrome.

Polyostotic lesions > 30 years
Common: Metastases, multiple myeloma, multiple enchondromas.
Less common: Fibrous dysplasia, Brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism, bone infarcts.

Mnemonic for multiple oseolytic lesions: FEEMHI:
Fibrous dysplasia, enchondromas, EG, Mets and myeloma, Hyperparathyroidism, Infection.

Spine lesions

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (23)

Here some typical examples of bone tumors in the spine.

  1. Hemangioma.
  2. Metastasis.
  3. Multiple myeloma.
  4. Plasmocytoma: vertebra plana.
    This 'Mini Brain' appearance of plasmacytoma in the spine is sufficiently pathognomonic to obviate biopsy (9).

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (24)

More examples

  1. ABC
  2. Chondrosarcoma
  3. Metastasis of breast cancer
  4. Osteoblastoma

Foot lesions

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (25)

Here some typical examples of bone tumors in the foot:

  1. Geode or subchondral cyst in the navicular bone
  2. Geode or subchondral cyst in the tarsal bone
  3. Chondroblastoma in the tarsal bone
  4. X-ray and MRI of a chondroblasoma in the tarsal bone
  5. Chondroblastoma in the tarsal bone

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (26)

  1. Aneurysmal bone cyst in the tarsal bone
  2. Chondroblastoma in the tarsal bone
  3. Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) in the calcaneus
  4. Same patient MRI
  5. CMF in the second metatarsal bone

The Radiology Assistant : Bone tumors (27)

  1. Ewing sarcoma in the calcaneus
  2. Glomus tumor
  3. Same patient MRI


What is the mnemonic for the site of bone tumor? ›

Remember the Site of origin of Bone Tumors using the mnemonic GEOMED. Another mnemonic that can be used to remember the Site of origin of Bone Tumours is DEMO ECG. Hope that mnemonic helped.

What is radiological evaluation score for bone tumors? ›

The observers reviewed the X-rays as per REST system and recorded their findings (Figs. 2 and 3). In the benign bone tumor group, the mean score was 1.1 (range 0–3, SD 0.941 and 95% CI 0.83–1.37), while in the malignant bone tumor group, the mean score was 6.16 (range 2–8, SD 1.065 and 95% CI 5.86–6.46)) (Table 4, Fig.

What is the most common benign bone tumor? ›

Osteochondromas are the most common, accounting for 30% to 35% of benign bone tumors. Giant cell tumors account for 20%, osteoblastomas for 14%, and osteoid osteomas for 12%.

What are the radiological features of bone Tumours? ›

The main features that should be assessed when a potentially neoplastic bone lesion is discovered include:
  • location in the body (i.e. which bone)
  • location within a bone.
  • zone of transition.
  • matrix.
  • morphology.
  • periosteal reaction.
  • size.
  • cortical involvement.
May 19, 2018

What is the most common site for bone tumor? ›

The most common locations include the femur (42%, with 75% of tumors in the distal portion of the bone), the tibia (19%, with 80% of tumors in the proximal portion of the bone), and the humerus (10%, with 90% of tumors in the proximal portion of the bone).

What is a good bone mass score? ›

A T-score of -1.0 or above is normal bone density. Examples are 0.9, 0 and -0.9. A T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 means you have low bone mass or osteopenia. Examples are T-scores of -1.1, -1.6 and -2.4.

What is a good bone scan score? ›

A T-score equal to or above -1.0 is considered normal bone density. A T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 is considered low bone density, sometimes referred to as osteopenia. A T-score -2.5 or below is considered osteoporosis.

What does Z-score mean on a bone density scan? ›

A Z-score compares your bone density to the average values for a person of your same age and gender. A low Z-score (below -2.0) is a warning sign that you have less bone mass (and/or may be losing bone more rapidly) than expected for someone your age.

Which bone tumor is the most aggressive? ›

Stage 4. This is the most advanced form of bone cancer. A stage 4 tumor will appear in more than one location and will have spread to either the lungs, lymph nodes, or other organs.

What percentage of bone tumors are cancerous? ›

Most bone tumors are benign (not cancerous), but a few are cancerous. Known as primary bone cancers, these are quite rare, accounting for less than 0.2 percent of all cancers.

What is the first most common malignant bone tumor? ›

Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. In this tumor, the cancerous cells produce bone. This variety of bone cancer occurs most often in children and young adults, in the bones of the leg or arm. In rare circumstances, osteosarcomas can arise outside of bones (extraskeletal osteosarcomas).

What is the most common benign bone tumor in radiology? ›

The most common benign bone tumor is osteochondroma [16]. In this study, the most frequent lesion was found as osteochondroma consisted with literature. Although plain radiography is essential for diagnosis, CT and MRI examinations provide additional information [17].

What is the most common bone tumor in radiology? ›

In patients > 40 years metastases and multiple myeloma are the most common bone tumors. Metastases under the age of 40 are extremely rare, unless a patient is known to have a primary malignancy.

What is a cancerous tumor found in bone? ›

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary bone cancer. It is a malignant tumor of bone marrow — the soft tissue in the center of many bones that produces blood cells. Any bone can be affected by this cancer. Multiple myeloma affects approximately seven people per 100,000 each year.

What does bone tumor pain feel like? ›

Pain caused by bone cancer usually begins with a feeling of tenderness in the affected bone. This gradually progresses to a persistent ache or an ache that comes and goes, which continues at night and when resting.

How do you know if a bone tumor is cancerous? ›

Signs and symptoms of bone cancer

persistent bone pain that gets worse over time and continues into the night. swelling and redness (inflammation) over a bone, which can make movement difficult if the affected bone is near a joint. a noticeable lump over a bone. a weak bone that breaks (fractures) more easily than ...

What are the early stages of bone tumors? ›

The earliest symptoms of bone sarcoma are pain and swelling where the tumor is located. The pain may come and go at first. Then it can become more severe and steady later. The pain may get worse with movement, and there may be swelling in nearby soft tissue.

Do all cancers show up in blood work? ›

Aside from leukemia, a broad term for cancers of the blood cells, most cancers cannot be detected during routine blood work. However, blood tests can provide helpful information about: Overall health. Organ function.

Will a tumor show up in blood work? ›

Aside from leukemia, most cancers cannot be detected in routine blood work, such as a CBC test. However, specific blood tests are designed to identify tumor markers, which are chemicals and proteins that may be found in the blood in higher quantities than normal when cancer is present.

What is considered a high tumor marker? ›

Normal range: < 2.5 ng/ml. Normal range may vary somewhat depending on the brand of assay used. Levels > 10 ng/ml suggest extensive disease and levels > 20 ng/ml suggest metastatic disease.

Is higher or lower bone mass better? ›

The higher your peak bone mass, the more bone you have "in the bank" and the less likely you are to develop osteoporosis as you age.

Is 7.6 bone mass good? ›

Normal bone mass should be 3-5 percent, while body water percentage should on average be between 45 and 65 percent and muscle mass, about 75- 89 percent for men under 40 and 63-75.5 percent for women under 40.

What are bad numbers for bone density? ›

A T score of -1 to +1 is considered normal bone density. A T score of -1 to -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone density). A T score of -2.5 or lower is bone density low enough to be categorized as osteoporosis.

What is a mnemonic for bone lesions? ›

FEGNOMASHIC: Lucent Lesions of Bone

Lucent lesions are common in skeletal radiographs. This differential and its mnemonic (FEGNOMASHIC) are often the first a radiology resident learns.

What is the mnemonic for osteochondroma? ›

A useful mnemonic for listing the radiological and clinical features suggestive of osteochondroma malignant (sarcomatous) transformation is 1: GLAD PaST.

What is the mnemonic for body bones? ›

Sally Left The Party To Take Cathy Home: She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her: Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle: Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate.

What is the mnemonic for bone functions? ›

Functions of the Bone

To summarize these functions, remember the mnemonic “Some Men Prefer Mini Skirts, But Can't Find Enough Skin.

Which mnemonic can be used to help you remember the components of symptom analysis? ›

"OLD CARTS" is a mnemonic device that assists clinicians in remembering the pertinent questions to ask while assessing an individual's present illness.

What are mnemonic devices for medical terms? ›

Mnemonics with wikipages
  • ABC — airway, breathing, and circulation.
  • AEIOU-TIPS — causes of altered mental status.
  • APGAR — a backronym for appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration (used to assess newborn babies)
  • ASHICE — age, sex, history, injuries/illness, condition, ETA/extra information.

What is the commonest site of osteochondroma? ›

Osteochondromas usually appear toward the ends of long bones, often at your joints, such as the knee, hip and shoulder. About 40% are at your knee. They can affect any bone with cartilage growth. Multiple osteochondromas can appear in many different places in the body at once.

What is the most common area for an osteochondroma? ›

Osteochondromas are most often diagnosed in patients aged 10 to 30 years. Symptoms of an osteochondroma include: A painless bump near the joints. The knee and shoulder are most often involved.

What is the mnemonic for wormian bones? ›

The mnemonic for Wormian bones is PORKCHOPS. The Wormian bones in most of these entities are indistinguishable, so one must rely on radiographic findings outside the skull for diagnosis.


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